CCTV ( Closed-Circuit Television ) systems meet the need for physical perimeter monitoring and control. Historically reserved for the most sensitive sites, they have become democratized and are now part of the urban landscape.
The old systems consisted of analog cameras and have to connect to tape recorders (videocassette). They were completely independent and came under the exclusive domain of security. If they were not concerned by computer security issues, most systems today are based on IP networks, embedding Linux kernels and Windows workstations.
In fact, with the arrival of digital video, closed-circuit surveillance systems (CCTV) have adapted and gradually embarked on more intelligence (detection of movements, raising of alarms, etc.). They also interconnected with other surrounding systems to enable more precise heuristics or value-added features such as person identification.
CCTV Camera Details
The key element of the surveillance network is, of course, the camera. It can be fixed or mobile ( Pan Tilt Zoom ), analog or digital, filming in the visible or infrared spectrum.
Analog cameras send a continuous stream to the server. At the same time, the IP camera (also called network camera), equipped with a complete network stack, has advanced features, including the automatic selection of the sending of sequences (after detection of a movement, for example).
The camera then offers multiple possibilities to connect to it to receive flows and send commands (SSH, Telnet, etc.), thus increasing the number of interfaces and protocols exposed.
The main application allowing interaction with the fleet of cameras is called VMS ( Video Management System ). It will enable, among other things, to: collect video streams, record them and view them.
In addition to the VMS, other video stream processing components may be present in appliances, virtual or physical machines. Technological development makes their distinction more and more difficult. We generally find:
- ADC ( Analog to Digital Converter ): it converts an analogue video stream to a digital video stream;
- Video Encoder: it allows analogue cameras to be interfaced with an IP network and offers many functionalities compared to a simple ADC (possibility of relaying PTZ functionalities, sharing of flows, etc.);
- DVR ( Digital Video Recorder ): its role is to record video streams from analogue or digital cameras on hard disks (generally, up to a maximum of 64 connections);
- NVS ( Network Video Server ): in the same way as the NVR, it takes care of the recording of IP streams. But it is not deployed with a VMS; it is up to the user to install it. It is generally a classic computer;
- NVR ( Network Video Recorder ): takes care of the recording of streams coming from IP cameras. We find in this appliance a VMS, allowing the backup and the administration of the cameras and ensuring the sending of the video streams to several clients and the aggregation of multiple streams thanks to displaying matrix functions.
The diagram (Figure 1) shows five different topologies of a video surveillance network using the equipment described above. Each of these topologies can be self-sufficient in the case of small CCTV infrastructures.
Supervision And Hyper Vision
Supervision and hyper vision make it possible to aggregate an infrastructure’s safety systems (CCTV, Access Control, Fire Safety). Unfortunately, we install it on physical machines that often costly.
The video protection system is often only a sub-part of the security network. Each subsystem is administered and uses dedicated intermediate processing equipment (ACS, alarm, etc.). The supervisor is an application layer making it possible to aggregate all the equipment to federate the processing operations and the display on a workstation. In addition, it makes it possible to set up inter-system business logic by correlating the data coming from several subsystems, for example, to point a camera on an opening door.
The hypervisor is also a software layer, which makes it possible to aggregate and manage the supervisors. In practice, there is a supervisor per zone and type of site (leading site and remote sites providing the same function in a given region). And, a hypervisor at the higher management level, making it possible to concentrate the information from the different supervisors.
Operating System in CCTV
The operating stations make it possible to consult the videos stored or broadcast in real-time. It can be a supervisor, a hypervisor or a dedicated station equipped with a heavy client or not (it then uses the web interface of another device).
Due to the large volume of data generated by the cameras, it is sometimes necessary to use storage servers (NAS, for example) connected to the CCTV network.
To standardize communications between IP-based security products, ONVIF (Open Network Video Interface Forum ) , a non-profit organization, has distinguished itself. It intends to set up an international standard for communications between security devices such as video management systems, network cameras and Access Control Systems (ACS). This standard now allows these different products to work together and in concert, regardless of the manufacturer. ONVIF also designates, by extension, all the protocols standardized by this organization.
One of the significant protocols standardized by ONVIF is the Real-Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP). It sends commands and provide service access authentication. Thus it allows the camera to control its audio and video streaming functions. It is a signaling protocol on TCP port 554. It does not transport data. Instead, it allows establishing, following an optional authentication (generally login/password), a seaport and a session number, which will be used by Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP) to pass the media stream. Unfortunately, the negotiation range of the RTP port is not predictable, which makes it challenging to configure any filtering equipment systematically.
The main commands are:
- SETUP: asks the server for the resources needed to establish the connection (port negotiation, etc.);
- PLAY: asks the server to transmit data in an RTP stream according to the SETUP parameters;
- RECORD: the client starts recording according to the defined parameters;
- PAUSE: temporary stop of the RTP stream;
- TEARDOWN: final termination of the RTSP session.
RTP can be coupled with an information feedback protocol ( Real-time Transport Control Protocol ), allowing errors or characteristics linked to the channel speed to be reported. This communication protocol respects constraints related to real-time rendering, in particular the continuity of the video stream. Companies usually use it in the unicast mode for voice over IP or streaming (video, audio) services in UDP.
You can use it in multicast mode, but you have to establish configuration on the routers between the camera and the clients.
The CCTV Camera monitoring system is an integral part of the security technology prevention system. It is an advanced and comprehensive system with solid defense capabilities. It can directly watch the monitored place through the remote control camera and auxiliary equipment (lens, PTZ, etc.) In all cases, it can also operate in conjunction with other security technology prevention systems such as anti-theft alarm systems to make its prevention capabilities more powerful. The technical requirements of the closed-circuit television monitoring system are mainly: the camera’s definition, the transmission bandwidth of the system, the signal-to-noise ratio of the video signal, the format of the television signal, the camera, etc.
7 Things to Do Near Kheerganga This Season
These 7 fun things would be great to do near Kheerganga this season. The picture-perfect Kheerganga Trek is one of the most well-known trekking destinations in Himachal Pradesh. It is situated at the peak of the Parvati Valley’s top mountains.
This 13 km-long trail of the place is attracting everyone on a high level.
Here is the reason: Kheerganga offers you an overwhelming panoramic sky and extensive greenery. It offers every trekker a relaxing delight and a relief to exhausted minds and bodies. It is also a gratifying landscape for the eyes of any photographer. Thus, this trek is definitely worth exploring.
Here is a must-to-do thing in Kheerganga that will make your trip a cherished memory.
The hike to Kheerganga is 13 km in one direction. Based on your hiking pace, it takes about 3-6 hours to complete the whole trek. From Barsheni, 7-8 AM is the ideal time to start your trek.
Waking up early may not be easy, but the best way to escape from the harsh afternoon sun is to start early. It also gives you plenty of time at any water stream or cafe along the trail to just sit back and relax.
So, if you want to get the most out of this journey, you should better start early and discover all that the trail throws with peace on your way.
Naktan is a tiny village but undoubtedly it is the most colorful and eye-catching village on the entire trail. It is the ideal pit-stop destination to take a breather and get some much-needed energy back into the body.
Apart from that, the village has a couple of cafes that serve a delicious duo of noodles and watermelon juice. Thus, a pit stop at Naktan is a must.
You will enter a deep pine tree forest after Rudranag, which will remind you of the forest your grandma told you fables about as a child. There are plenty of run-off areas in the forest, which is actually flat land and makes a perfect place for a mid-hike picnic spot in the area. A must-do along the trail is to sit and chill on the grass.
Kheerganga is famous for its sulphur hot springs at the top of the base camp. A hot bath works as the perfect antidote to the chilly weather. Since, the water in the spring is known for its medicinal qualities, you can relax your sore muscles. A dip in the hot bath while enjoying the enchanting 360 degree view of those ice-capped mountains is a deal worth grabbing.
Sunsets are always a beautiful sight but the view of sunset can be enjoyed the best in Kheerganga.
When the day closes, the sky switches colors. So with the sky changing its shade from orange to red, sunsets provide you with breath-taking and definitely mesmerizing views. You can shoot the entire evening while you sip on a cup of hot chocolate and watch the colors of nature change in front of you. Therefore, it is important to observe these sunsets with full attention, to live them with the awe they deserve.
You will take your journey to the next stage by pitching your tent at the top and relaxing there. After all, stargazing is the highlight of the camping experience at Kheerganga. Therefore, a trip to Kheerganga is incomplete without spending a night camping under the blankets of stars. There are many campsites available on the top of the trail and the prices vary but are quite affordable.
Staying in the tents at the summit and enjoying your life’s most alluring stargazed nights. On the dark clouds, the twinkling stars shine like sparkles and glitter. The greatest feeling you can cherish for a lifetime is sleeping under the skies. The bonfire and the music session at the campsite are the cherry on top.
The Kheerganga trail is also loved for the mouth-watering beverages and snacks they offer at the base camp area, apart from some eye-catching sights and a never forgetful experience. To satisfy the passing world travelers, Kheerganga also has a strong variety of cuisines and cafe setups. The food prices are moderate and the quality of the food served here is good as well.
Chinese, Israeli, Indian, and the local Himachali cuisine are the cuisines that can be easily found in this region. At these little dhabas and cafes, one of the must-try items is their abundance of hot drinks like tea, coffee, and others, which make a perfect rejuvenation package when combined with the spectacular view.
How we can protect and make smart home with gadgets
Alarm system with Smart Home
We planned to equip our house with Smart Home and to integrate our alarm system into it. The possibilities with Smart Home are very diverse. Regardless of whether you put in place it with bus systems such as KNX or use radio solutions such as RWE Smart Home. Window contacts on the windows, panic switches, motion detectors. Central reporting unit that sends malfunctions and movements to the cell phone and so on. In the end, we said goodbye to the Smart Home topic for reasons of cost. Because if you want to do it right, you have to budget EUR 10,000, which is our not to let. In our house we will rather put in place the classic burglar protection. But also look together with the electrician to see. What options we have and what the price framework looks like smart home.
What does burglary protection include?
That is the fundamental question and every builder must first decide for himself. What he wants to secure everything in the house and how. You can find some good advice and checklists on the Internet. E.g. the advice on burglary protection on idealo.de or from ABUS. Both show the weak points in the house and how you can protect yourself. Beside to protection against burglars, protection. Against fire and gas also plays an important role. This is particularly important in houses with a chimney or gas connection. A solid home security can divide into different criteria:
- Life saving measures
- Securing the house
- Alarming measures
If you want to feel safe, all these points should met as far as possible.
This includes all devices and measures that dissuade. The unwanted visitor from breaking into the house.
- Alarm siren mounted on the outside wall
- Outdoor lights with motion detectors
- Notice stickers on doors and windows “Attention! Alarm will sound”
- Outside cameras (or good dummies)
- Lamps with timer / clock function (switch lights on and off when you are away)
- Shutters with Astor function (shutters close according to the day and night times)
- Why not a chilling “Here I watch!” sticker on the front door?
Life saving measures:
Measures that warn of smoke, fire and gas.
- Smoke alarms in all rooms
- Gas detector (for houses with a gas connection)
- Carbon monoxide alarm (in houses with a fireplace)
- Fire extinguishers (one per floor) and first aid kit
- Lightning rod, grounding
Measures to secure the house:
If burglars have not deterred, the next thing that counts is securing the house. Such as extra locking mechanisms.
- Extra security lock on the front door
- Lockable windows and doors (at least on the ground floor)
- Shutters throughout the house
If, in spite of all the deterrent measures. Someone else lends a hand on one’s own house, a corresponding alarm must gave. Either to yourself, the neighbors or to the police or security guards.
- Window and door contacts (at least on the ground floor)
- Alarm-secured house entrance door
- Alarming outdoor siren
- Alarm doorstop (wedge-shaped, battery-operated doorstop)
If the alarm system in the house arm and windows or doors open. The corresponding door or window contacts react. And the alarm system triggers an alarm. Good alarm systems pass this on to the police. If the alarm system retrofitted, the window and door contacts send the signals by radio.
Which alarm system is the right one?
On the one hand, this depends on the needs of the client. The budget and the environment in which the building project is taking place. If the budget is irrelevant, I would definitely prefer a bus-based. (I.e. not wireless) Smart Home solution. This can adapt and expanded at any time. Sends extra information via app or email and can also operate. Beside, different scenarios can map, such as, for example. The outside motion detector switches the light on inside.
For the smaller budget, simpler solutions must found, but they do not have to be less secure. It is advisable to ask an expert for an opinion on this. It is also advisable to think about it in good time. If certain precautions can take or prepared. By the electrician during the construction phase. Every now and then one reads the advice to ask the local police for an opinion. Sometimes it is also worth taking a look at the statistics of break-ins in your own neighborhood.
Insurance against burglary:
This is also part of the protection against burglary and theft. If the house brake into and valuables stolen or things damaged. You have to protect. Even if the burglar may not have entered the house, it is possible that he has left damage to the door. You should also protect against this. In any case, you should check your home insurance again before moving into the new house.
How are we going to secure our house?
At this point it may not make sense to describe your own protection of the house in detail. Also to name the type designation of the alarm system. How exactly we will do it is also not yet clear. First of all, at the next meeting we will ask. The electrician about his opinion and experiences with other builders. The next step will be to go to a security expert. Who will present us with various solutions with advantages? And disadvantages as well as prices. We also get roller shutters throughout the house, which can later also operate. Which means that we also feel a bit safer.
In any case, we will get a good quality alarm system. We will read various test reports and also on testreports.de look for test winners.
How to Draw Pikachu With Easy Drawing Tutorials Step by Step?
Everyone around you might be investing in cloud storage. Almost all the companies are working on a cloud server in India. With this cloud storage has now become the mainstream of storage technology.
But why the businesses are going all frenzy about cloud storage? What is so different in cloud storage than other storage types?
Well, the answer lies in the way the businesses start to respond when moved to cloud storage. Companies have seen a massive change in the rapidness of their response to the changing needs. This is why most IT innovations don’t even think twice before adopting the cloud.
But no technology exists that does not have both its good and bad side. Cloud storage in India is no such exception. Just like other storage, cloud storage also has some disadvantages of its own. But before heading towards the disadvantages, let’s go through the advantages of cloud storage.
The good side of cloud storage
Here are the advantages of cloud storage-
Files stored on cloud storage get the benefit of the exceptional accessibility of cloud storage. The only requirement to access a file stored on cloud storage is a good internet connection. Thus, cloud storage is the most flexible one as it gives you the freedom to operate from a completely different time zone.
Cloud storage allows you to save a lot on your savings. When a small or medium scale organization operates on the cloud, many of the operating costs are saved. Cloud storage is so cost-effective as it does not run-on internal power but stores the information remotely.
Top notch scalability–
Cloud storage is so flexible that one has to only pay for the fraction of resources they are using. Cloud servers in India like Cyfuture, HostGator, etc. Allows you to scale up your resources any time you need. As per the growth, they accommodate the data storage needs to avoid any downtime. You as a cloud user just need to be aware of your needs and scalability requirement. The best part about the cloud is that you can scale down when there the demand rate is low.
Cloud storage makes sure that all your data is saved and can be easily recovered during challenging times. For this, it creates a second copy of each and everything and saves it as a recovery backup. The files with the backup data can be stored by the companies in a remote location. So, whenever a disaster hits your business, you can recover all your data just by connecting to the internet.
Cloud experts take to guarantee the speed at which the data can be accessed through the cloud. Cloud storage draws data at a lightning-fast speed.
The bad side of cloud storage
Here are the disadvantages of cloud storage-
Privacy compromised– the most commonly known disadvantage of cloud storage is that security and privacy get compromised. This worries companies as they trust cloud storage with their valuable data that is stored remotely. So, one should be aware of this and trust cloud storage only with lesser valuable data and accounts. Although there is reliable cloud storage in India like Cyfuture, HostGator, Namecheap, etc. That take full care of your data.
Cloud storage is vulnerable– People trust cloud storage with their business information but this leads to more attacks. Cloud storage is more vulnerable to attacks. The probability of your data getting hacked is higher in cloud storage. As cloud storage runs over the internet which attracts potential hackers.
Limited bandwidth– The cloud storage plans allow businesses to utilize limited bandwidth. Once your business surpasses the basic storage needs, then the cloud vendors start charging not less than a dedicated storage pricing. To void such a situation, you must be very careful while choosing your cloud storage provider.
Inefficient data management– Cloud storage vendors operate within their own built environment. Understanding their cloud model is sometimes tricky and leads to inefficiency in data management. As you are unaware of the complications and possible issues of the model, you cannot manage your data properly. Thus, it is not necessary that your business model might be suitable for a particular cloud environment.
Conclusion– Sometimes it is difficult to decide whether the pros outweigh the cons or vice versa. But businesses do prefer cloud storage for its affordability, accessibility, and excellent recovery. All these advantages do outweigh their disadvantages.
Hence, cloud storage will stay the most preferred storage for businesses for a long time. If you are considering cloud storage for your business infrastructure then visit our official website to get more insights on cloud technology and storage.
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